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Tuesday 26th of September 2017
Kalam and Beliefs

Can the Fabricated Hadith be Recognized

The investigators have stated generalities through which recognizing which hadith being fabricated becomes feasible:Its contradiction to the Qur’an and authentic successive Sunnah or decisive unanimity or determined rules of the Shari’ah, or to the rational proof, or to the senses and conspicuousness and all certainties. Or the hadith’s including temerities in regard of promise and threats, reward and punishment. Or its being ...

Islamic Brotherhood : Byword of Unity and Fraternity

Islamic brotherhood is not a honorific expression but a reality mingled with the spirit of faith whose fruits emerge one after the other. Our Holy Leader Imam Sadiq has explained some of the fruits of Islamic brotherhood in the following way: 'A believer is the brother and guide of another believer. He does not betray or oppress him, nor does he ever cheat his brother. A believer never breaks his promise'. 123One of the requirements of Islamic ...

Islamic Brotherhood in the Present Age

In our age, Muslims need real unity more than ever. God has endowed Islamic countries with invaluable resources which others intensely covet. Thus, they try every means possible to divide Muslims and distract them from their critical situation. It goes without saying that dispersion, lack of unity, and negligence are extremely effective causes of ruin and slavery, and obviously the world-devouring enemies of Muslims are quite aware of this fact. ...

Their Leniency toward Narrations on Virtues and their Detriment

Ibn Mahdi is reported to have said: “Whenever narrating any hadith about halal (lawful) and haram (unlawful) rules, we would be very strict in the asanid (chains of transmission) with scrutinizing the rijal. And when relating anything on virtues, reward and punishment, we would show leniency in the asanid and indulgence in respect of rijal”. (Reported by al-Bayhaqi in al-Madkhal).Among those permitting leniency in narrating the ...

Solecism and Mistake in Hadith

The narrators were not satisfied with narrating the hadith according to meaning, but allowed themselves to cite hadith in a perverted way, finding no harm then in correcting its solecism and rectifying its error.The Moroccan scholar Ibn Abd al-Barr, n his book Jami’ bayan al-’ilm wa fadlih,167 says:Al-Walid ibn Muslim related to us saying: I heard al-Awza’i saying: No harm is there in rectifying solecism and error in hadith. He ...

Narration of Hadith after its Writing was Forbidden by Prophet

Those having no expertise in knowledge and no awareness of expertise, surmise that the Messenger’s traditions which they read in books or hear from narrators, have all reached us correct in syntax and well-arranged in wording, and that their original words reached to the narrators intact and preserved exactly as were uttered by the Prophet, without any corruption (tahrif) or alteration.They further think that the Companions and those who ...

Fabricating a Lie against the Prophet during His Lifetime

It might be that the Prophet (S) has warned against falsity against him after hearing that some people were fabricating lies against him though he being alive. In his book al-Ihkam fi usul al-ahkam,89 Ibn Hazm al-Zahiri reported from Abd Allah ibn Buraydah, from Ibn al-Khatib al-Aslami, that he said: A suburb of Banu Layth was situated two miles away from al-Madinah, to which some man came putting on a cloak declaring: The Messenger of Allah ...

The Greatest Calamity Inflicted Islam

Al-Ustadh Muhammad Abduh said: Islam was never inflicted with a calamity greater than the bida’ (heresies) ascribed to it by those pretending to be Muslims, and the fabrications invented by the Ghulat, which corrupted the minds of Muslims and made others mistrust the foundations of religion. Consequently falsification spread tremendously against the Muhammadan religion in its early centuries, continuing till the era of the Companions, and ...

Aspects of Preponderance Contain Contradiction

Al-Allamah al-Shaykh Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi, in his book Qawa’id al-tahdith, says:“Whoever looks into conditions of the Companions and Followers, and their followers, will verily find them concurrent upon acting according to the preponderant rule and abandoning the preponderated. The ways of preponderation are so many, and pivot of preponderation would increase the investigator in strength of his insight, in a proper manner congruent ...

The Two Problems of Succession and Authority in Religious Sciences

In accordance with the Islamic teachings which form its basis, Shi'ism believed that the most important question facing Islamic society was the elucidation and clarification of Islamic teachings and the tenets of the religious sciences. 1 Only after such clarifications were made could the application of these teachings to the social order be considered. In other words, Shi'ism believed that, before all else, members of society should be able to ...

The Transfer of the Caliphate to Mu'wiyah and Its Transformation into a Hereditary Monarchy

After the martyrdom of Imam 'Ali, his son,Imam Hasan ibn 'Ali, who is recognized by the Shi ah as their second Imam, became caliph. This designation occurred in accordance with Imam 'Ali's last will and testament and also by the allegiance of the community to Imam Hasan. But Mu'awiyah did not remain quiet before this event.He marched with his army toward Iraq, which was then the capital of the caliphate, and began to wage war against Imam ...

Zaydism and Its Branches

The Zaydis are the followers of Zayd al-Shahid, the son of Imam al-Sajj?d. Zayd rebelled in 121/737 against the Umayyad caliph, Husham ibn 'Abd al-Malik, and a group paid allegiance to him. A battle ensued in Küfah between Zayd and the army of the caliph in which Zayd was killed. The followers of Zayd regard him as the fifth Imam of the Household of the Prophet. After him his son, Yahy? ibn Zayd, who rebelled against the caliph Walid ibn ...

The Batinis

In the year 278/891, a few years before the appearance of Ubaydullah al-Mandi in North Africa, there appeared in Küfah an unknown person from Khuzestan (in southern Persia) who never revealed his name and identity. He would fast during the day and worship at night and made a living from his own labor. In addition, he invited people to join the Ismaili cause and was able to assemble a large number of people about him. From among them he ...

Differences Between Twelve-Imam Shi'ism and Isma'ilism and Zaydism

The majority of the Shi' rtes, from whom the previously mentioned groups have branched out, are Twelve-Imam Shi'ites, also called the Imamites. As has already been mentioned, the Shi ites came into being because of criticism and protest concerning two basic problems of Islam, without having any objections to the religious ways which through the instructions of the Prophet had become prevalent among their contemporary Muslims. These two problems ...

Summary of the History of Twelve-Imam Shi'ism

The majority of Shi'ites are Twelvers. They were originally the same group of friends and supporters of 'Ali who, after the death of the Prophet, in order to defend the right of the Household of the Prophet in the question of the caliphate and religious authority, began to criticize and protest against prevalent views and separated from the majority of the people.During the caliphate of the "rightly-guided caliphs" (11/632-35/656), the Shi ites ...

Shi'ite Initiative in Islamic Philosophy and Kalam

As for theology, kalam, it is clear that from the beginning, when the Shi'ites separated from the Sunni majority, they began to debate with their opponents concerning their own particular point of view. It is true that a debate has two sides and that both the opponents share in it. However, the Shi'ites were continuously on the offensive, taking the initiative, while the other side played the defensive role. In the gradual growth of kalam, which ...

Outstanding Intellectual Figures of Shi'ism

Thiqat al-Islam Muhammad ibn Ya'qub Kulayni (d. 329/940) is the first person in Shi'ism to have separated the Shi'ite hadiths from the books called Principles (WO and to have arranged and organized them according to the headings of jurisprudence and articles of faith. (Each one of the Shi'ite scholars of hadith had assembled sayings he had collected from the Imams in a book called Asl, or Principle.) The book of Kulayni known as al-Kafi is ...

That Mysterious Wisdom and Consciousness Called Revelation

The laws which can guarantee the happiness of human society cannot be perceived by reason. Since according to the thesis of general guidance running throughout creation the existence of an awareness of these laws in the human species is necessary, there must be another power of apprehension within the human species which enables man to understand the real duties of life and which places this knowledge within the reach of everyone. This ...

Hadith Da'wat 'Ashirah

The Prophet invited his relatives to luncheon and after the meal told them, "I know of no one who has brought to his people better things than I have brought to You. God has commanded me to invite you to draw toward Him. Who is there who will assist me in this matter and be my brother and inheritor (wasi) and vicegerent (khalifah) among you?" All remained silent, but 'All, who was the youngest of all, exclaimed, "I shall be your deputy and ...

The Imamate and Its Role in the Exposition of the Divine Sciences

In the discussion of prophecy, it was mentioned that, according to the immutable and necessary law of general guidance, each created species is guided through the path of genesis and generation toward the perfection and felicity of its own kind.The human species is not an exception to this general law. Man must be guided through the very "instinct" of seeking reality and through thought concerning his life in society in such a way that his well ...